Since the industrial revolution 150 years ago the levels of greenhouse gases have started to increase rapidly. Even though sustainability and green actions have been receiving more coverage in the media, Dr Edward S. Rubin argues that without government intervention we won’t be able to evade substantive climate change and temperature rises.

The article “Innovation and Climate Change” by BBVA Open Minds, based on the book “Innovation. Perspectives for the 21st Century” by John R. Boatright et al., 2011.

The four general strategies available to transform the energy system of a country or region:

1. Reduce the demands for energy in all major sectors of the economy (buildings, transportation, and industry), thus reducing the total demand for fossil fuels;

2. Improve the efficiency of energy utilization so that less fossil fuel is required to meet energy demands, resulting in lower CO2 emissions;

3. Replace high-carbon fossil fuels such as coal and oil with lower-carbon or zero-carbon alternatives such as natural gas, nuclear, and renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind and solar;

4. Capture and store the CO2 emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels to prevent its release to the atmosphere.

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